Coordinated by

 

Front fanged Viper-type Snakes

Family: Viperidae

The following includes only those species which are likely to be able to cause medically significant envenoming.

Subfamily: Crotalinae (pit vipers)

Trimeresurus (Cryptelytrops) albolabris

White-lipped green pit viper

This species may be a common cause of bites, characterised by significant local swelling, occasionally blistering/bleeding, uncommonly necrosis, and systemically coagulopathy is the dominant feature, with extensive bruising. Fatalities occur but appear uncommon to rare.

A specific antivenom is available from Thailand and is appropriate in cases with coagulopathy.

Trimeresurus (Cryptelytrops) erythrurus

Red-tailed green pit viper

This species causes effects similar to T. albolabris, but significant envenoming is less common and local necrosis has not been reported.

A specific antivenom (against T. albolabris) is available from Thailand and is appropriate in cases with coagulopathy.

Trimeresurus (Viridovipera) gumprechti

Gumprecht’s pit viper

It is uncertain if this species occurs in Myanmar, with conflicting records (listed by Gumprecht et al, 2004, but omitted by Leviton et al, 2003).

There is a lack of data on bites by this snakes, but based on related species it might be expected to cause local pain, swelling, possibly bruising/bleeding, and possibly systemic shock and coagulopathy.

No specific antivenom is available.

Trimeresurus (Viridovipera) medoensis

Bamboo-leaf pit viper

It is uncertain if this species occurs in Myanmar, with conflicting records (listed by Gumprecht et al, 2004, but omitted by Leviton et al, 2003).

There is a lack of data on bites by this snakes, but based on related species it might be expected to cause local pain, swelling, possibly bruising/bleeding, and possibly systemic shock and coagulopathy.

No specific antivenom is available.

Trimeresurus (Popeia) popeiorum

Pope’s green pit viper

Significant bites by this species appear unlikely to occur.

No specific antivenom is available or required.

Trimeresurus (Cryptelytrops) purpureomaculatus

Mangrove pit viper

This snake may often cause only minor effects, but is capable of severe/lethal envenoming characterised by local pain, swelling, necrosis, fluid shifts and systemically shock and coagulopathy.

Trimeresurus (Viridovipera) stejnegeri (alternatively listed as Trimeresurus (Viridovipera) yunnanensis for Myanmar)

Chinese bamboo pit viper

There is a lack of data on bites by this snakes, but based on related species it might be expected to cause local pain, swelling, possibly bruising/bleeding, and possibly systemic shock and coagulopathy.

No specific antivenom is available.