Front fanged Viper-type Snakes
The following includes only those species which are likely to be able to cause medically significant envenoming.
Subfamily: Crotalinae (pit vipers)
Malayan pit viper
This medically important species, common in parts of SE Asia, has uncertain status in Myanmar and may not be present (omitted by Leviton et al, 2003 and by Gumprecht et al, 2004). Envenoming is often severe/lethal and is characterised by severe local effects, shock, bleeding, coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia, but renal failure is uncommon.
Antivenom is the cornerstone of effective treatment, specifically controlling the coagulopathy, but management of shock secondary to fluid shifts is also important. Specific antivenom is available from Thailand.
Mountain pit viper
Envenoming by this species is characterised by local swelling, bleeding, coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia and probably shock, but renal failure is not reported and possibly most cases develop only minor envenoming.
No specific antivenom is available.