Coordinated by


Front fanged Elapid Snakes

Family: Elapidae

The following includes only those species which are likely to be able to cause medically significant envenoming.


Kraits are feared in many rural SE Asian communities because they are commonly found close to human habitation and enter dwellings at night. These snakes frequently cause severe/lethal envenoming characterised by progressive flaccid paralysis (pre- and post-synaptic neurotoxins) and, at least for some species, rhabdomyolysis and hyponatraemia. Bites may cause minimal local effects or pain and can go unnoticed, especially in a sleeping person. Kraits are nocturnal and may enter dwellings at night, causing bites to sleeping occupants who may wake in the morning with advancing paralysis, or may be found in late stage paralysis or even dead the following morning.

Effective antivenoms are available for some of the most common species, but it is unclear how effective these are against other krait species, though it is likely there will be at least some cross protection.

Bungarus bungaroides

Northeastern hill krait

Bungarus candidus

Malayan krait

Bungarus fasciatus

Banded krait

Bungarus flaviceps

Red-headed krait

Bungarus magnimaculatus

Burmese krait

Bungarus multicinctus

Many banded or Chinese krait